The Impact of Short-Term Vacation Rentals on Communities: Six Key Effects
Short-term vacation rentals have rapidly gained popularity over the past decade, igniting debates and sparking changes in communities. As they continue to grow, it is essential to consider their effects when developing or updating regulations. This article explores six key ways in which short-term vacation rentals impact communities.
Positive Economic Impact: Short-term vacation rentals contribute positively to a city or county's economy. They generate additional income through tax revenues, while guests' spending benefits the community as a whole. In San Diego, research indicates that visitors staying in short-term vacation rentals spent approximately $86.4 million on activities such as dining, entertainment, and cultural experiences, resulting in an estimated total economic impact of $285 million. Additionally, these rentals can help local residents supplement their income and enable families to afford holidays, while retirees can generate income from their homes.
Reduced Long-Term Rentals: The proliferation of short-term vacation rentals, once concentrated in large urban areas, has now expanded to over 1,500 cities and counties in the United States. By occupying space in residential areas, these rentals limit long-term housing availability, particularly in cities with existing affordable housing challenges like New York and San Francisco. Evictions to make way for permanent short-term vacation rentals have become a growing concern across the United States. The scarcity they create may drive housing and rental prices even higher, impacting smaller cities as well.
Neighborhood Changes: Living next to a short-term vacation rental can be disruptive, with new guests arriving and departing frequently, leading to complaints about noise, trash, and parking issues. Residents worry that the increasing presence of these rentals will transform the character of their neighborhoods and affect their quality of life. Protests against this issue have emerged in major cities like New York and San Francisco and smaller cities like Santa Monica. Regulating short-term vacation rentals to protect neighborhoods while respecting homeowners' property rights presents a significant challenge for local governments.
Increased Tourism Activity: Short-term vacation rental platforms, such as Airbnb, can boost local tourism sectors, making less popular tourist destinations more attractive. Even cities with established tourist industries benefit from short-term vacation rentals, as studies have shown a direct correlation between these rentals and job creation in the tourism sector. In San Diego, these rentals support 1,842 jobs.
Unfair Competition for Traditional Lodging: Short-term vacation rentals disrupt the traditional lodging industry by offering economic advantages like lower operational costs due to a lack of staff and fewer regulations. This allows them to provide more competitive rates compared to hotels. Additionally, they are often not subject to tourist taxes, creating unequal competition. Reports indicate that in cities like Portland, Airbnb-style rentals have significantly increased both in revenue and the number of hosts with multiple units, posing a threat to lower-end hotels.
Missed Tax Revenues: Many cities do not tax short-term vacation rentals, resulting in significant losses in potential tax revenue. By allowing and regulating these rentals, local governments can increase their revenue through taxes, permits, and business licenses. For instance, Mill Valley, California, has collected nearly $96,000 in taxes and registration fees from hosts. In contrast, cities like Boston may be missing out on millions of dollars in tax revenues due to the untaxed nature of short-term rentals.
It is crucial to recognize and address the impact of short-term vacation rentals on communities. While they bring economic benefits, unregulated Airbnb-style rentals can create challenges for communities and the accommodation industry. As short-term vacation rentals continue to grow, local governments must implement effective and enforceable regulations to protect communities, preserve neighborhood character, and ensure housing availability.